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“Due to greater consumption of poultry products and an increase in exports, more poultry houses will be needed. Therefore, it is important to investigate ways that poultry facilities can coexist in close proximity to residential areas without odours and environmental challenges. Ammonia (NH3) is the greatest concern for environmental pollution from poultry production.


When birds consume protein, they produce uric acid, ultimately converted to NH3 under favourable conditions. Factors that increase production include pH, temperature, moisture content, litter type, bird age, manure age, relative humidity, and ventilation rate (VR).


NH3 concentration and emissions in poultry houses depend on VR; seasons also have effects on NH3 production. Modern ventilation systems can minimise NH3 in enclosed production spaces quickly but increase its emissions to the environment. NH3 adversely affects the ecosystem, environment, and health of birds and people. NH3 can be minimised by housing type, aerobic and anaerobic conditions, manure handling practices, litter amendment, and diet manipulation without affecting performance and production. Antibiotics can minimise NH3, but consumers have concerns about health effects. Administration of probiotics seems to be a useful replacement for antibiotics.


More studies have been conducted on broilers, necessitating the need to evaluate the effect of probiotics on NH3 production in conjunction with laying hen performance and egg quality.”

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